United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

67 of 67 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 21

DJJ commitments generally cannot exceed age 21. However, the statute provides an exception for DJJ to retain jurisdiction until age 22 to allow youth released from maximum-risk programs to participate in conditional release services. Upon committing a youth to DJJ, the committing court specifies risk level; however, DJJ decides the remaining placement specifics.

Standard for detention

F.S.A. § 985.24

(1) All determinations and court orders regarding the use of secure, nonsecure, or home detention shall be based primarily upon findings that the child:

(a) Presents a substantial risk of not appearing at a subsequent hearing;

(b) Presents a substantial risk of inflicting bodily harm on others as evidenced by recent behavior;

(c) Presents a history of committing a property offense prior to adjudication, disposition, or placement;

(d) Has committed contempt of court by:

1. Intentionally disrupting the administration of the court;

2. Intentionally disobeying a court order; or

3. Engaging in a punishable act or speech in the court's presence which shows disrespect for the authority and dignity of the court; or

(e) Requests protection from imminent bodily harm.

(2) A child alleged to have committed a delinquent act or violation of law may not be placed into secure, nonsecure, or home detention care for any of the following reasons:

(a) To allow a parent to avoid his or her legal responsibility.

(b) To permit more convenient administrative access to the child.

(c) To facilitate further interrogation or investigation.

(d) Due to a lack of more appropriate facilities.

(3) A child alleged to be dependent under chapter 39 may not, under any circumstances, be placed into secure detention care.

(Additional Hearing Standards Available)

Detention hearing timeline

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 985.255(3)(a).

Within 24 hours of custody, unless detained for failure to appear, then within 72 hours.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Dr. Craig Swain
Office of Prevention and Victim Services
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice
Phone: (850) 717-2442


JJS coordinator

Yvonne Woodard, MSW, CPM
Federal Juvenile Justice Specialist/Federal Programs Manager
Phone: (850)717-2434
Fax: (850)922-6189

DMC subcommittee chair

Cheryl Massaro
33 Barkley Lane Palm Coast, FL 32137
Phone: (306) 986-9218

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

  • Situational Environmental Circumstances (SEC) Pilot
  • Juvenile Justice System Improvement Project with the following organizations:
    • Project Future
    • John Hopkins Assistance
    • NAB After School Project
    • Real Life Coaching Program
    • MAPP
    • FOCUS
    • Offering Successful Outcomes
    • Big in Schools and Sites

State plan

"Roadmap to System Excellence" 2013

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Mission of the State Advisory Group is to effectively administer and manage federally allocated funds for juvenile delinquency prevention, ensure compliance with Federal Juvenile Justice Act mandates and to partner with the Governor, the Legislature, the Department of Juvenile Justice and community leaders from around the State to build a better and safer Florida for our youth and their families.


  • Approving the preparation and implementation of the JJDP Act in Florida, the state juvenile justice plan and any other requirements as mandated by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention;
  • Submitting to the Governor, at least annually, recommendations related to its functions, including State compliance with requirements of the JJDP ACT and any other JJDP SAG concerns;
  • Reviewing and commenting on all JJDP SAG grant applications submitted for consideration for funding through the JJDP Act. Develop JJDP SAG procedures that address the Requests for Proposal, receipt of proposals, review of proposals and the recommended funding processes for all projects funded by JJDP funds;
  • Monitor and ensure that the four federal mandates, defined by the JJDP Act of 1974, as amended, are addressed;
  • Develop a JJDP SAG policy regarding the promotion of community partnerships and delinquency prevention programs that address the development of educational, training, research, prevention, diversion, treatment and rehabilitative programs in Florida's Juvenile Justice System;
  • Reviewing the progress and accomplishments of the JJDP SAG projects funded under the State Three-Year Plan;
  • Regularly seeking comments, recommendations and opinions from juveniles currently under the jurisdiction of the Juvenile Justice System; and
  • Serving as the Juvenile Crime Enforcement Coalition responsible for providing comment to the Department regarding the development of a coordinated crime enforcement plan designed to reduce juvenile crime.

SAG chair

Lucas Boyce
Public Relations and Govt. Affairs for Orlando Magic
4117 Fairview Vista Point #111
Orlando, FL 32804
Phone: 407-916-2439
Fax: 407-916-2985

Organizational structure

The JJDP State Advisory Group currently consists of a 20-member panel of persons from across the State who have training, experience, or special knowledge of the juvenile justice system. SAG members are appointed by the Governor and are responsible for the administration and management of federally allocated funds.


Executive, DMC, Finance Committee, Grants & Contract, and Youth


  • Alan Abramowitz – Tallahassee, FL
  • Kip Beacham – Sanford, FL
  • Lucas Boyce- Chair- Orlando, FL
  • Judge Daniel Dawson- Orlando, FL
  • Kristin Early- Tallahassee, FL
  • Darcy Flierl- Stuart, FL
  • Jeffrey Golden- Monticello, FL
  • Lourdes Gimenez- Miami, FL
  • Curtis Jenkins- Lake City, FL
  • Tony Jones- Gainesville, FL
  • Muriah Kirkland- Panama City, FL
  • Michael Long- Sarasota, FL
  • Cheryl Massaro- Palm Coast, FL
  • Dwayne Maddron- Tallahassee, FL
  • Dustin Roache- Panama City, FL
  • Caroline Zucker- Sarasota, FL