United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

6 of 102 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–16
  • 18 for misdemeanors
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of detention


Standard for detention

(2)(a) Any minor 10 years of age or older arrested pursuant to this Act where there is probable cause to believe that the minor is a delinquent minor and that (i) secured custody is a matter of immediate and urgent necessity for the protection of the minor or of the person or property of another, (ii) the minor is likely to flee the jurisdiction of the court, or (iii) the minor was taken into custody under a warrant, may be kept or detained in an authorized detention facility. No minor under 12 years of age shall be detained in a county jail or a municipal lockup for more than 6 hours.

Detention hearing timeline

705 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 405/5-415.

Within 40 hours of detention, except Saturdays, Sundays and holidays.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Karima Douglas
Youth Network Council
111 East Wacker, Suite 325
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone: 312-970-9122


JJS coordinator

Heidi Mueller
Office of Community & Positive Youth Development
401 S Clinton, 4th Floor
Chicago, IL 60607
Phone: 312-793-3401
Fax: 312-793-4666

DMC subcommittee chairs

There is currently no DMC subcommittee chair

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

The Racial and Ethnic Impact Research Task Force is working to standardize collection and analysis of data on racial and ethnic identity of arrested individuals.

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Commission develops, reviews and approves the State's juvenile justice plan for the expenditure of funds granted to Illinois by the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The Commission is also responsible for ensuring the State's compliance with the Federal Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act.

The Commission has a statutory responsibility to submit an annual report to the Governor and General Assembly that highlights the State's accomplishments, its most urgent challenges relative to juvenile justice in Illinois and its recommendations for addressing those issues.

SAG chair

George Timberlake
120 North 11th Street
P.O. Box 794
Mount Vernon, IL 62864
Phone: (618) 237-3004

Organizational structure

The Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission (the Commission) serves as the federally mandated State Advisory Group to the Governor, the General Assembly and the Illinois Department of Human Services. The Commission has 25 member positions appointed by the Governor. They have training, experience, and/or special knowledge concerning the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency or the administration of justice. Members serve three-year terms and serve until such time as they have been reappointed or replaced.


  • Planning & Grants Sub-Committee
  • DMC Sub-Committee
  • Executive Sub-Committee
  • Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiatives (JDAI) Sub-Committee
  • Communications Sub-Committee


  • Rodney Ahitow
  • Julie Biehl
  • Arthur D. Bishop
  • Jacqueline Bullard
  • Shelley Davis
  • Veronica Dixon
  • Esther Franco-Payne
  • Eugene Griffin
  • George H. Hill
  • Toni Irving
  • Arnetra Jackson
  • Lisa Jacobs
  • Patrick Nelson
  • Edward Rangel
  • Pamela Rodriguez
  • Michael Rodriguez
  • Ben Roe
  • Randell Strickland
  • Rick Velasquez
  • Ethan Viets-VanLear
  • Dana Weiner