United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

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Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

92 of 92 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of detention

  • Lower Age: varies by detention center.
  • Some do not accept under 12, others have as low as 8
  • Upper: 17

Standard for detention

Sec. 3. (a) If a child is not taken into custody under an order of the court, the law enforcement officer may release the child or may release the child to the child's parent, guardian, or custodian upon the person's written promise to bring the child before the juvenile court at a time specified. Subject to subsection (c), the law enforcement officer may place the child in detention if the law enforcement officer reasonably believes that:

(1) the child is unlikely to appear before the juvenile court for subsequent proceedings;

(2) the child has committed an act that would be murder or a Class A or Class B felony if committed by an adult;

(3) detention is essential to protect the child or the community;

(4) the parent, guardian, or custodian:

(A) cannot be located; or

(B) is unable or unwilling to take custody of the child; or

(5) the child has a reasonable basis for requesting that the child not be released.

(IC 31-37-5-5 applies the exact same standards on intake officers)

(Additional Hearing Standards Available)

Detention hearing timeline

Ind. Code § 31-37-6-2.

No later than 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Tashi Teuschler
Indiana Criminal Justice Institute Youth Division
101 West Washington Street, Ste. 1170E
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: 317-234-4476
Fax: 317-232-4979


JJS coordinator

Ashley Barnett M.P.A.
Youth Division Director
Indiana Criminal Justice Institute
101 West Washington Street, Suite 1170 E
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: 317-233-3340
Fax: 317-232-4979

DMC subcommittee chair

Tashi Teuschler
Indiana Criminal Justice Institute Youth Division
101 West Washington Street, Ste. 1170E
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: 317-234-4476
Fax: 317-232-4979

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

Indiana received a 2009 grant to increase data collection, establish standards of cultural sensitivity training.
Indiana established the Board for Coordination of Programs Serving Vulnerable Individuals to oversee DMC recommendation implementation.

Statewide DMC data collection project

Indiana is in compliance with the DMC core requirement. In early 2012, the state, with the assistance of the Indiana University Center for Criminal Justice Research, completed a statewide DMC data collection project during which data was collection for all of Indiana’s 92, for 8 of the 9 decision points, for 2005 through 2009. The project was designed to help determine if DMC exists across of the state and if so, to what extent. The completion of the project also aligns with Indiana’s efforts to improve its juvenile justice system, including the reduction of racial and ethnic disparities. The report will enable us to further explore the mechanisms that are contributing to racial disparities and DMC in Indiana’s juvenile justice system. It will help counties understand how they can assist in maintaining compliance with the JJDP Act, and most importantly, help to improve outcomes for youth and their families who come in contact with the juvenile justice system.

DMC assessment

Partnering with Community Solutions and the Center for Criminal Justice Research, the state is in the process of completing a DMC assessment in LaPorte, Allen, and Vanderburgh Counties. Using a qualitative and quantitative approach, researchers will work with each county to identify the mechanisms and factors that are contributing to DMC in the counties mentioned above. Once the assessment study is complete, the results will be summarized in a report, which should be available spring of 2013.

State plans

As the administering agency for the state of Indiana, the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute (ICJI) routinely receives and allocates federal Formula Grant funding. ICJI is also tasked with ensuring that Indiana achieves and maintains compliance with the four core requirements. For additional information about the first three core requirements and how they are being addressed in the state of Indiana, please visit http://www.youthlawteam.org/compliance.html.

Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative

Indiana was designated a statewide Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) site by the Annie E. Casey Foundation. Through JDAI, ICJI is currently working with a number of counties to reduce racial and ethnic disparities and DMC in their communities. New and old JDAI sites have received or are currently receiving funds to support local JDAI/DMC Coordinator positions and other initiatives related to JDAI and DMC. A number of counties are also working with the W. Haywood Burns Institute, an organization that provides jurisdictions with guidance and technical assistance as they work to reduce racial equity in their juvenile justice systems. Each JDAI sites has establish or are in the process of establishing a Racial and Ethnic/DMC subcommittee that will be charged with guiding the work in their respective jurisdiction. There is also a statewide RED/DMC subcommittee that is tasked with addressing cross-cutting DMC issues that arise from the county, as well as ensuring that the state maintains compliance with the JJDP Act.

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Indiana Juvenile Justice State Advisory Group (JJSAG) is the advisory body recognized by Congress to establish priorities for OJJDP funding under these programs. The JJSAG makes recommendations to the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute Board of Trustees regarding funding under the Title II Formula Grant Program.

SAG chair

Mary Wellnitz
Figment Group, Inc.
2328 N. U.S. Highway 35
LaPorte, IN 46350
Phone: 219-326-8880

Organizational structure

Governor appoints members. The SAG makes recommendations, but has now been waiting over a year for acknowledgement


Compliance, DMC, and Grants & Contracts (there has been no meeting for months and no activity)


  • Mary Wellnitz, Chair (LaPorte) Figment Group, Inc.
  • Robert Bingham (Indianapolis) Retired, Marion County Probation
  • Connie Keith (Greenville) Clark County Youth Coalition
  • Dr. Roger Jarjoura (Indianapolis) American Institutes for Research
  • Aaron Negangard (Lawrenceburg) Dearborn/Ohio County Prosecutor’s Office
  • Rebecca Humphrey (Lafayette) Tippecanoe County Government
  • Comm. Bruce Lemmon (Indianapolis) Indiana Department of Correction
  • Steve Owens (Indianapolis) Indiana Public Defender Agency
  • Jane Seigel (Indianapolis) Indiana Judicial Center
  • Sheriff Doug Cox (Johnson County) Johnson County Sheriff’s Department
  • Brandon Jordan (Indianapolis) Youth Member/Student
  • Derreck Roper (Indianapolis) Youth Member/Student
  • Scott Johnson (Salem) Washington County YMCA
  • Frank Freeman (Ft. Wayne) Youth Member/Student
  • Kathryn Bernel (LaPorte) LaPorte County Prosecuting Attorney’s Office