United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

8 of 105 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 10–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: The maximum duration of institutional commitments (including conditional release periods) is until the youth reaches age 23 for certain sentencing matrix classifications. While commitments expire when a youth attains the age of 22.5 in these highest commitment levels, the District Court may retain jurisdiction of the case until the offender turns age 23. The preceding provisions are notwithstanding commitments under the state's "extended jurisdiction juvenile prosecution" blended sentencing option.

Age of detention


Standard for detention

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c), a juvenile may be placed in a juvenile detention facility pursuant to subsection (c) or (d) of K.S.A. 38- 2330 or subsection (e) of K.S.A. 38-2343, and amendments thereto, if one or more of the following conditions are met:

(1) There is oral or written verification that the juvenile is a fugitive sought for an offense in another jurisdiction, that the juvenile is currently an escapee from a juvenile detention facility or that the juvenile has absconded from a placement that is court ordered or designated by the juvenile justice authority.

(2) The juvenile is alleged to have committed an offense which if committed by an adult would constitute a felony or any crime described in article 35 of chapter 21 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto.

(3) The juvenile has been adjudicated for a nonstatus offense and is awaiting final court action on that offense.

(4) The juvenile has a record of failure to appear in court or there is probable cause to believe that the juvenile will flee the jurisdiction of the court.

(5) The juvenile has a history of violent behavior toward others.

(6) The juvenile exhibited seriously assaultive or destructive behavior or self-destructive behavior at the time of being taken into custody.

(7) The juvenile has a record of adjudication or conviction of one or more offenses which if committed by an adult would constitute a felony.

(8) The juvenile is a juvenile offender who has been expelled from placement in a nonsecure facility as a result of the current alleged offense.

(9) The juvenile has been taken into custody by any court services officer, juvenile community corrections officer or other person authorized to supervise juveniles subject to this code pursuant to subsection (b) of K.S.A. 38-2330, and amendments thereto.

(10) The juvenile has violated probation or conditions of release.

(c) No person 18 years of age or more shall be placed in a juvenile detention center.

Detention hearing timeline

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 38-2343.

Within 48 hours following the detention, excluding Saturday, Sunday and legal holidays.

"Detention hearing; waiver; notice; procedure; removal from custody of parent; audio-video communications. (a) Length of detention. Whenever a juvenile is taken into custody, the juvenile shall not remain in detention for more than 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays, from the time the initial detention was imposed, unless the court determines after hearing, within the 48-hour period, that further detention is necessary."


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Robert E. Johnson
Disproportionate Minority Contact Coordinator
Johnson County Department of Corrections
588 E. Santa Fe, Suite 3000 Olathe, Kansas 66061
Direct 913-715-7294 | Fax 913-715-4557
TDD 800-766-3777 


JJS coordinator

Terri Williams

Phone: 785-296-4213

DMC subcommittee chair

Robert E. Johnson (see above)

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

2013 DMC Assessment report

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Kansas Advisory Group on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention was established by the Governor in accordance with K.S.A. 75-7007 and as directed by Section 223(a) (3) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act ( JJDPA), to determine, advocate for, and promote the best interests of juveniles in Kansas. Reflecting its purpose, the Kansas Advisory Group reviews juvenile justice policy, advises policymakers on issues effecting the juvenile justice system; and strives to keep Kansas in compliance with the federal JJDPA act.

The Kansas Advisory Group seeks to:

  • Improve and monitor the state juvenile justice system;
  • Prevent juvenile delinquency and strengthen communities and families;
  • Support juvenile justice improvements and reform through policy development and funding recommendations and monitoring;
  • Advocate for the full implementation of the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act;
  • Develop and implement the JJDPA Three Year State Plan, and
  • Advise policymakers on matters concerning the juvenile justice system and related youth issues.

SAG chair

Reginald L. Robinson – KAG Chair
Director Center for Law and Government
University of Washburn School of Law
1700 SW College Avenue
Topeka, KS 66621-1140
Work: 785 670-1674

Organizational structure

The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act forges a dynamic relationship between the federal government and committed volunteer citizens from the states. In order to enhance influence and commitment, the Act mandates gubernatorial appointments to the State Advisory Group. Drawing from a broad range of expertise and community leaders in the juvenile justice field, the State Advisory Group offers vital citizen input into the development of federal and state policy and juvenile justice related programming. The KAG fulfills the federally required responsibilities of the State Advisory Group.


  • Executive Subcommittee -The Executive Subcommittee reviews multi-year and annual action plans, reviews proposed state and federal legislation, develops JJAB activities, programs and policies, recommends special subcommittees or task forces and sets the level of decision-making authority for any special subcommittee or task force created. They set the overall policy for subcommittees and task forces, and hear and dispose of internal appeals from actions taken by any standing or special subcommittee.
  • Grants Subcommittee - The Grants Subcommittee assists in the development and implementation of the grant process and makes recommendations regarding the awarding of grants.
  • Budget Subcommittee - The Budget Subcommittee develops a budget for the expenditure of the State Advisory Group allocation under the JJDP Act of 1974.
  • SEJAY Subcommittee - The SEJAY Subcommittee advises the JJAB and the general public of the Commonwealth of Kentucky on the issue of disproportionate minority representation in the juvenile justice system, and its causes and remedies; advocates for the full implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, especially the fourth core requirement; develops policy and funding recommendations relating to this issue; and supports efforts to improve the quality of juvenile justice for all Kentucky citizens.
  • Nominating Subcommittee - The Nominating Subcommittee keeps an up to date nominating grid of all of the current members of the JJAB along with the category of members needed or mandated by statute. They identify candidates for appointment by the Governor as member’s terms expire and they prepare a ballot of at least one person for chair and at least one person for vice-chair.
  • Policy and Program Subcommittee - The Policy and Programs Subcommittee assists in the development and implementation of the three year plan and annual updates.
  • Subcommittee of Kentucky Youth (SKY) - The Subcommittee of Kentucky Youth (SKY) unites youth across the state in an effort to advise the Kentucky Juvenile Justice Advisory Board on issues concerning youth. The SKY strengthens the image of youth by encouraging and empowering youth in their educational endeavors and future goals; providing opportunities for the youth of Kentucky to develop leadership skills through service and advocacy.


  • Hasan Davis, Chairperson
  • Nancy Pfaadt, Vice Chairperson, Community Volunteer
  • Bridget S. Brown, Commissioner, Department of Juvenile Justice
  • Melanda Adams Juvenile Justice System
  • Hon. Eugene Clark, Circuit Judge
  • Kelly Cline, Youth Member
  • Ann Ferriell, Director, Safe and Drug Free Schools
  • Eugene Foster, Undersecretary, Children & Family Services
  • Paige Lay, Cumberland Valley Childrens Advocacy Center
  • Cindy W. Hess, Detective, Jefferson Police Department
  • Barbara Kaminer, Program Administrator, Department for Mental Health & Mental Retardation
  • Leilani Krashin, Department of Public Advocacy
  • Gary Mielcarek, United Parcel Service
  • Amy Hale Milliken, Warren County Attorney
  • Danny Orazine, County Judge Executive
  • J. Todd P'Pool, Attorney at Law
  • Hon. Cathy Prewitt, District Judge
  • Racynnio Rankin, Youth Member
  • Stephanie Reynolds, KY Child Now
  • Lincoln Bradley Sloas, Youth Member
  • Elizabeth Taylor, Deparment of Education
  • Kaye Templin, Director, Gateway Juvenile Diverson Program
  • Michael Walker, Attorney at Law
  • Lisa H. Wallace, Assistant Professor, Eastern Kentucky University
  • Patrick Yewell, Administrative Office of the Courts