United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

24 of 24 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 7–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of detention


Standard for detention

(a) Only the court or an intake officer may authorize detention, community detention, or shelter care for a child who may be in need of supervision or delinquent.

(b) If a child is taken into custody under this subtitle, the child may be placed in detention or community detention prior to a hearing if:

(1) Such action is required to protect the child or others; or

(2) The child is likely to leave the jurisdiction of the court.

(c) A child taken into custody under this subtitle may be placed in emergency shelter care or community detention prior to a hearing if:

(1)(i) Such action is required to protect the child or person and property of others;

(ii) The child is likely to leave the jurisdiction of the court; or

(iii) There is no parent, guardian, or custodian or other person able to provide supervision and care for the child and return the child to the court when required; and

(2)(i) 1. Continuation of the child in the child's home is contrary to the welfare of the child; and

2. Removal of the child from the child's home is reasonable under the circumstances due to an alleged emergency situation and in order to provide for the safety of the child; or

(ii) 1. Reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to prevent or eliminate the need for removal from the child's home; and

2. As appropriate, reasonable efforts are being made to return the child to the child's home.

Detention hearing timeline

No later than next day after the petition is filed, which must be immediately upon detention.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

William Jernigan
Statewide Disproportionate Minority Contact Coordinator
GOCCP, Governor’s Office on Crime Control and Prevention

JJS coordinator

Jessica Wheeler
Senior Director of Juvenile Justice and Victim Services
Governor's Office of Crime Control & Prevention
100 Community Place
Crownsville, MD 21032
Phone: 410-697-9342

DMC subcommittee chair

There is currently no DMC subcommittee chair

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Juvenile Justice Policy Unit is responsible for leading efforts in Maryland to ensure compliance with the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDP Act) as reauthorized in 2002. The Unit also administers grants from state and federal funding sources to respond to identified needs for at-risk and delinquent youth and their families.

The Unit provides staff support to the Juvenile Grant Planning and Review Council (Juvenile Council). The Juvenile Council is the State Advisory Group mandated by the JJDP Act. According to the JJDP Act, the Juvenile Council will assist GOCCP in the development of a juvenile justice and delinquency prevention plan and review and comment on grant applications for federal funding.

The Unit also provides staff support to the Children's Justice Act Committee (CJAC). CJAC reviews and evaluates State investigative, administrative and both civil and criminal judicial handling of cases of child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse and exploitation, as well as cases involving suspected child maltreatment related fatalities and cases involving a potential combination of jurisdictions, such as interstate, Federal-State, and State-Tribal. The committee also makes policy and training recommendations.

SAG chair

Ron Rivlin

Organizational structure

  • Juvenile Grant Planning and Review Council (Juvenile Council) Representatives
  • Locally elected official representing general purpose local government.
  • Representative of law enforcement and juvenile justice agencies, including:
    • Juvenile and family court judges
    • Prosecutors
    • Counsel for children and youth
    • Probation workers
  • Representatives of public agencies concerned with delinquency prevention or treatment:
    • Welfare
    • Social services
    • Mental health
    • Education
    • Special Education
    • Recreation
    • Youth services
  • Representatives of private nonprofit organizations, including persons concerned with:
    • Family preservation and strengthening
    • Parent groups and parent self-help groups
    • Youth development
    • Delinquency prevention and treatment
    • Neglected or dependent children
    • Quality of juvenile justice
    • Education
    • Social services for children
  • Volunteers who work with juvenile justice
  • Youth workers involved with programs that are alternatives to confinement, including organized recreation activities
  • Persons with special experience and competence in addressing problems related to school violence and vandalism and alternatives to suspension and expulsion
  • Persons with special experience and competence in addressing problems related to learning disabilities, emotional difficulties, child abuse and neglect, and youth violence


Youth, DMC, SAG Bylaws


  1. Captian Herber E. Watts, Interim Chair
  2. Kimberly Armstrong, Parent Advocate
  3. Reggie Broddie, Boys and Girls Club
  4. Angela Conyers Johnese, Advocate for Children and Youth
  5. Lynn D. Davis, LCPC Volunteers who work with Juvenile Justice
  6. Secretary Donald W. DeVore, Department of Juvenile Services
  7. David Fishkin, Baltimore City Public Defender's Office, Juvenile Court Division
  8. Maceo Hallmon, East Baltimore Community Corporation
  9. Emanuel Holley, Youth Member
  10. Delegate Gerron Levi, Prince George's County
  11. Samatha Majette, Youth Member
  12. John McGinnis, Maryland State Department of Education, Pupil Personnel Specialist
  13. Edwina Nesiba, Parent Advocate
  14. Ron Rivlin, Juvenile Justice Services, Montgomery County Dept. of Health and Human Services
  15. Richard Robinson, Youth Member
  16. Captain Keith Warner, Harford County Sheriff's Office, Youth Services Division
  17. Keita Wells, Elijah Cummings Youth Program
  18. Denier Winfield, Youth Member
  19. Gabriel Wyatt, Youth Member