United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

4 of 87 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 10–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

In Minnesota, the extended age of juvenile court jurisdiction is 19; however, for "extended jurisdiction juveniles" and offenders who fail to appear at any court hearing or any placement under court order, or who abscond from any placement under court order, the court may extend jurisdiction until the offender is 21 years old.

Age of detention:


Standard for detention

Subdivision 1. Notification; release. If a child is taken into custody as provided in section 260B.175, the parent, guardian, or custodian of the child shall be notified as soon as possible. Unless there is reason to believe that the child would endanger self or others, not return for a court hearing, run away from the child's parent, guardian, or custodian or otherwise not remain in the care or control of the person to whose lawful custody the child is released, or that the child's health or welfare would be immediately endangered, the child shall be released to the custody of a parent, guardian, custodian, or other suitable person. The person to whom the child is released shall promise to bring the child to the court, if necessary, at the time the court may direct. If the person taking the child into custody believes it desirable, that person may request the parent, guardian, custodian, or other person designated by the court to sign a written promise to bring the child to court as provided above. The intentional violation of such a promise, whether given orally or in writing, shall be punishable as contempt of court.

The court may require the parent, guardian, custodian, or other person to whom the child is released, to post any reasonable bail or bond required by the court which shall be forfeited to the court if the child does not appear as directed. The court may also release the child on the child's own promise to appear in juvenile court.

(Additional Hearing Standards Available)

Detention hearing timeline

  • No longer than 36 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays if held in a juvenile facility.
  • No longer than 24 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays if held in an adult facility.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

Racial and Ethnic Disparities Coordinator

Callie J. Hargett
Minnesota Department of Public Safety
Office of Justice Programs
445 Minnesota Street, Suite 2300
St. Paul, MN 55101
Phone: 651-201-7348

There is no DMC website

JJS Coordinator

Callie J. Hargett
Minnesota Department of Public Safety
Office of Justice Programs
445 Minnesota Street, Suite 2300
St. Paul, MN 55101
Phone: 651-201-7348

Racial and Ethnic Disparities Subcommittee Co-Chairs:

Richie Smith: Richard.a.smith@state.mn.us
Scott Knight: sknight@chaskamn.com

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

In 2009, Minnesota established with H.F. 702/Ch. 132 the dissemination of Juvenile Justice data, assessment of accuracy of data, mapping of diversion resources, implementation of statewide race/ethnicity data collection standards and creation of statewide central data repository.

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan 

Outline of the 2012–2014 DMC Reduction Plan:

  • Increase funding for community-based systems and programs that are focused on the
    diminution of DMC.
  • Expand juvenile detention reform.
  • Engage law enforcement in meaningful conversations and trainings regarding DMC.On The Level: DMC in Minnesota’s Juvenile Justice System
  • Fund additional regional trainings for School Resource Officers.
  • Engage community partners to (a) address DMC by targeting overrepresented populations and (b) develop innovative solutions to take the place of detention.
  • Engage policy makers in taking an active role to address DMC.
  • Meet with local professionals in each of Minnesota’s 10 Judicial Districts to explore individualized responses to DMC.
  • Continue efforts to expand the statewide policy with specific, inclusive and meaningful procedural requirements.
  • Explore ways that counties and jurisdictions will be able to effectively collect and report DMC data.
  • Improve uniformity of data definitions and race and ethnicity codes across systems, and other data improvement strategies.
  • Earmark funding for a DMC Coordinator.

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee (JJAC) is charged, under the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, with providing advice and recommendations to the Governor and the State Legislature on issues, trends and practices of the state's juvenile justice system.

JJAC, comprised of representatives from private non-profits, resource practitioners for juveniles and government officials and administrators, is aware of the need for an overarching view of the juvenile justice system in order to spotlight emerging juvenile needs, best practices in juvenile programming and a user friendly and effective governmental system. JJAC is also aware there may be duplication of services, disconnected services or no services in specific geographic areas and is seeking ways to ameliorate such inadequacies.
JJAC has long held that all youth in our society are at risk due to enormous challenges they face during the maturation process. However, some are more at risk than others due to the demographics of poverty, family dysfunction, chemical and mental health issues, disparities based on cultural and ethnic discrimination and a society that accommodates violence on many levels. These high risk juveniles are those that JJAC believes can most benefit from an inclusive and comprehensive approach to juvenile justice and it is with these youth that JJAC is most concerned and committed.

SAG chair

Richard Gardell
236 Clifton Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55403
Phone: 612-813-5010

Organizational structure

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee is appointed by the Governor's Office and is comprised of representatives from private non-profits, resource practitioners for juveniles and government officials and administrators. Members are typically appointed to serve four-year renewable terms.

The Governor's eighteen JJAC appointees come from all backgrounds and places to truly represent Minnesota. Each member brings a particular interest and expertise rooted in professional and personal experience. Geographically one third of its membership is from rural Minnesota, one third from suburban MN and one third from the metropolitan Twin Cities. People of color representing major racial origins comprise forty four percent of the committee. JJAC brings together juvenile justice policymakers, juvenile justice experts including judges, prosecutors and defenders, private sector service providers, researchers and youth representatives with current experience of Minnesota's youth culture.


  • Executive
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact
  • Jail
  • Long-Range Planning
  • Status Offenders


  • Co-Vice Chairs William Collins and the Honorable Michael Mayer
  • DMC Subcommittee Co-Chairs Freddie Davis-English and the Honorable Kathryn Smith
  • Jail Issues Subcommittee Co-Chairs Jean Hancock and Chong Lo
  • Long-Range Planning Subcommittee Co-Chairs Kate Richtmann and Antonio Tejeda
  • Youth Members: Samantha Loe, Danielle Chelmo, Cortland Johnson, Sirxavier Nash
  • Other Members: Abdallai Hassan, Hao Nguyen, Brenda Pautsch, Saciido Shaie, Richard Smith