United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

3 of 15 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 8–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of Detention


Standard for detention

A juvenile shall be detained only if there is probable cause to believe that the juvenile committed the acts alleged in the referral, petition, or complaint, and there is probable cause to believe;

  1. The juvenile otherwise will not be present at any hearing; or
  2. The juvenile is likely to commit an offense injurious to self or others; or
  3. The juvenile must be held for another jurisdiction; or
  4. The interests of the juvenile or the public require custodial protection; or
  5. The juvenile must be held pending the filing of a complaint pursuant to A.R.S. 13-501.

Detention hearing timeline

Within 24 hours of filing the petition.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Steve Selover
Governor’s Office of Youth, Faith and Family
1700 W. Washington, Suite 230
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Phone: 602-542-2393

There is no DMC website

JJS coordinator

Steve Selover
Governor’s Office of Youth, Faith and Family
1700 W. Washington, Suite 230
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Phone: 602-542-2393

DMC subcommittee chair

Helen Gándara, Assistant Chief
Scottsdale Police Department
Phone: 480-312-1905

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

  1. Update identification spreadsheets.
  2. Assessment/Diagnosis: analyses of 400 delinquency case files from four counties in Arizona (Maricopa, Pinal, Gila, and Cochise)
  3. Intervention: Maricopa, Yuma and Pima County
  4. Evaluation: Performance measures
  5. Monitoring

State plan

Five-year strategic plan 2015-2019

In order to achieve the Commission’s goal, Arizona plans to distribute their 2013 award across the following four program areas: deinstitutionalization of status offenders, mental health programs, juvenile justice system improvement and disproportionate minority contact. Compliance monitoring and serving rural and Native American communities will also continue to play a significant role in 2013 activities.

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Commission's roles and responsibilities include:
Advocating for full implementation of the JJDP Act and its core protections for the funding of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention programs; the core protections (commonly referred to as the core requirements) are aimed to protect juveniles in the juvenile justice system from inappropriate placements and from the harm, both physical and psychological, that can occur as a result of exposure to adult inmates;
Establishing priorities for the statewide implementation of the Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) program;
Establishing a Three-Year Comprehensive plan to reduce and prevent juvenile delinquency;
Addressing the linkage between child maltreatment and juvenile justice;
Obtaining input from juveniles currently under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system;
Advising the Governor and the Arizona State Legislature on matters related to the improvement of the juvenile justice system and its services to children, youth and families; and,
Providing leadership to the state and its local communities in developing and maintaining a coordinated, best practice approach to juvenile justice prevention, intervention, and public safety.

SAG chair

Hon. Cecil B. Patterson, Jr.
1849 E. Guadalupe Rd., Ste C-101
PMB 125
Tempe, AZ 85283
Phone: 480-650-6119
Fax: 480-730-8864

Organizational structure

In compliance with the JJDP Act, the Arizona Juvenile Justice Commission consists of 24 members appointed by the Governor. The members have training, experience and special knowledge concerning the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency and the administration of juvenile justice. The Commission includes representation from juvenile justice agencies, public agencies, private nonprofit organizations, locally elected officials, as well as volunteers and youth.


DMC, Planning Evaluation, Bylaws & Legislation, and Executive


  1. Judge Cecil B. Patterson, Jr., Chair (Ret.) Court of Appeals, Maricopa County (Maricopa County)
  2. Derrick Johnson, Vice Chair Phoenix Fire Department (Maricopa County)
  3. Michael Branham Director, Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections (Maricopa County)
  4. The Honorable Robert Brutinel Presiding Juvenile Court Judge Yavapai County Courthouse (Yavapai County)
  5. Angie Rodgers Policy Advisor Office of Governor Janet Napolitano (Maricopa County)
  6. Paul Cunningham Safe Schools Officer Juvenile Probation (Pima County)
  7. Judge John Foreman (Maricopa County)
  8. Representative David Lujan Arizona House of Representatives (Maricopa County)
  9. Helen Gandara Zavala Director, City of Scottsdale Police Department (Maricopa County)
  10. Arjelia "Argie" Gomez Executive Director Chicanos Por La Causa, Inc. (Maricopa County)
  11. Luis Ibarra President, Friendly House (Maricopa County)
  12. Sanjay Kumar Youth Member (Maricopa County)
  13. Alma Laris Youth Member (Maricopa County)
  14. Cynthia Lindstrom Youth Member (Maricopa County)
  15. Rob Lubitz Administrative Offices of the Courts, Juvenile Justice Services Division (Maricopa County)
  16. James Molina (Maricopa County)
  17. Michael Owelicio Youth Member (Maricopa County)
  18. The Honorable Patricia Orozco State of Arizona, Court of Appeals, Division 1 (Maricopa County)
  19. Vada Jo Phelps Executive Director Cochise Private Industry Council, Inc. (Cochise County)
  20. Dennis Pickering BEHCON, Inc. (Maricopa County)
  21. Beth Rosenberg Children's Action Alliance (Maricopa County)
  22. Dr. Robert Thomas Chief U.S. Probation Officer, Ret. (Maricopa County)
  23. Margarita Marquez Youth Member (Pinal County)
  24. The Honorable Garye Vasquez State of Arizona, Court of Appeals, 2nd Division (Pima County)
  25. Myrtle Young (Retired) Director, Juvenile Court Services (Cochise County)