United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

21 of 21 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: until full term of dispositional order

Age of detention


The court may order pretrial detention of a juvenile not over the age of 11 only if the juvenile is charged with an offense which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a crime of the first or second degree or arson and provided further that the juvenile otherwise meets either of the detention criteria of paragraph (a) of this rule.

Standard for detention

c. A juvenile charged with delinquency may not be placed or retained in detention under this act prior to disposition, except as otherwise provided by law, unless:

(1) Detention is necessary to secure the presence of the juvenile at the next hearing as evidenced by a demonstrable record of recent willful failure to appear at juvenile court proceedings or to remain where placed by the court or the court intake service or the juvenile is subject to a current warrant for failure to appear at court proceedings which is active at the time of arrest; or

(2) The physical safety of persons or property of the community would be seriously threatened if the juvenile were not detained and the juvenile is charged with an offense which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a crime of the first, second or third degree or one of the following crimes of the fourth degree: aggravated assault; stalking; criminal sexual contact; bias intimidation; failure to control or report a dangerous fire; possession of a prohibited weapon or device in violation of N.J.S.2C:39-3; or unlawful possession of a weapon in violation of N.J.S.2C:39-5; or

(3) With respect to a juvenile charged with an offense which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a crime of the fourth degree other than those enumerated in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or a disorderly persons or petty disorderly persons offense, and with respect to a juvenile charged with an offense enumerated in subsection c. when the criteria for detention are not met, the juvenile may be temporarily placed in a shelter or other non-secure placement if a parent or guardian cannot be located or will not accept custody of the juvenile. Police and court intake personnel shall make all reasonable efforts to locate a parent or guardian to accept custody of the juvenile prior to requesting or approving the juvenile's placement in a shelter or other non-secure placement. If, after the initial detention hearing, continued placement is necessary, the juvenile shall be returned to a shelter or other non-secure placement.

e. In determining whether detention is appropriate for the juvenile, the following factors shall be considered:

(1) The nature and circumstances of the offense charged;

(2) The age of the juvenile;

(3) The juvenile's ties to the community;

(4) The juvenile's record of prior adjudications, if any; and

(5) The juvenile's record of appearance or nonappearance at previous court proceedings.

Detention hearing timeline

5:21-7. Adjudicatory Hearing

If a juvenile has been detained the adjudicatory hearing shall be held within 30 days after the date of initial detention. If the adjudicatory hearing is not held within said time, the court shall, within 72 hours after a motion by the juvenile so requesting, fix a date certain for the adjudicatory hearing unless an extension is granted by the court for good cause shown. Written notice of any application for a postponement shall be furnished the juvenile's counsel, who shall have a right to be heard on the application.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Doris S. Darling
Juvenile Justice Commission
P.O. Box 107
1001 Spruce Street, Suite 202
Trenton, NJ 08625
Phone: 609-341-5019

There is no DMC website

JJS coordinator

Doris S. Darling
Juvenile Justice Commission
P.O. Box 107
1001 Spruce Street, Suite 202
Trenton, NJ 08625
Phone: 609-341-5019

DMC subcommittee chair

Barbara Wallace
Phone: 609/341-5051

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

  • New Jersey is in the process of developing a contracted position for a part time DMC Coordinator to support the work of JJDP Committee and ensure compliance with the core requirements related to DMC.
  • The JJDP Committee supported a delegation of New Jersey stakeholders to attend the Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Juvenile Justice Certificate Program on September 23 through September 27, 2013 hosted by the Georgetown Center for Juvenile Justice Reform and the Center of Children’s Law and Policy

State plan

3-year plan 2012–2014

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The JJDP Committee is responsible for developing policies and programs to help ensure public safety, holding youthful offenders accountable for their actions and funding programs, primarily at the local level, which provide appropriate delinquency prevention and treatment services to meet the needs of at-risk and delinquent youth. Specifically, the JJDP Committee:

  • Participates in the development and review of the State's Three Year Plan for Juvenile Justice
  • Seeks input from juveniles and incorporating their needs and views into the planning process
  • Awards federal grant funds provided to the state under the JJDP Act
  • Monitors activities and accomplishments of funded projects
  • Oversees the state's compliance with the core protections provided under the Act for youthful offenders
  • Submits an annual report to the Governor and Legislature

SAG chair

Jean Krauss
134 Orchid Court
Toms River, NJ 08753
Phone: 732-557-0686

Organizational structure

The JJDP Committee/SAG is comprised of a Chairperson, Vice Chairperson and approximately 17 additional members. The Juvenile Justice Specialist employed by the State of New Jersey Juvenile Justice Commission (JJC) and JJDP/Grants Unit staff attend the JJDP meetings, oversee the administration of funds and monitor JJDP funded programs.


  • Steering Planning
  • NPM
  • DMC
  • Legislative
  • Career Paths Ad Hoc
  • Community Education
  • Voice of Youth


  1. Jude Del Preore
  2. Margaret McLeod
  3. John P. Scagnelli
  4. Alexander Thornley
  5. Roland V. Anglin, Ph.D.
  6. Cindy Ann Hamer
  7. Jean M. Krauss
  8. Roy Perham, Ph.D.
  9. Robert P. Baselice
  10. Carlos Hendricks
  11. W. David Burns
  12. Joyce A. Johnson
  13. Mary T. Previte
  14. Cathy Wasserman
  15. Barry J. Serebnick
  16. Honorable F. Lee Forrester
  17. Barbara Wallace
  18. Shama Haider
  19. Nafeesah Allen
  20. Lydia Santoni-Williams
  21. Miguel Maldonado