United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

62 of 62 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 7–15
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of detention


Standard for detention

3. (a) The court shall not direct detention unless available alternatives to detention, including conditional release, would not be appropriate, and the court finds that unless the respondent is detained:

(i) there is a substantial probability that he or she will not appear in court on the return date; or

(ii) there is a serious risk that he or she may before the return date commit an act which if committed by an adult would constitute a crime.

Detention hearing timeline

McKinney's Family Court Act §§ 307.3 and 307.4.

Within 72 hours of the time detention commenced or the next day the court is in session, whichever is sooner.


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC coordinator

Courtney Ramirez
Office of Program Development and Funding
Division of Criminal Justice Services
80 South Swan Street
Albany, NY 12210
Phone: 518-485-9166
Fax: 518-485-0909


JJS coordinator

Courtney Ramirez
Office of Program Development and Funding
Division of Criminal Justice Services
80 South Swan Street
Albany, NY 12210
Phone: 518-485-9166
Fax: 518-485-0909

DMC subcommittee chair

There is currently no DMC subcommittee chair

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

  • Research policy and practices that contribute to disparate treatment of racial and ethnic minority youth.
  • Map decision points where disparate treatment of racial and ethnic minority youth can contribute to disproportionate representation of youth in the juvenile justice system.
  • Determine standard, reliable data sources to measure decision points.
  • Quantify the disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority youth at progressive stages of the juvenile justice system.
  • Research effective strategies that reduce the disparate treatment of racial and ethnic minority youth.
  • Develop or identify training to increase cultural competence.
  • Train policy makers and professionals who work with children and families to improve cultural competence.
  • Organize and convene a youth advisory council.
  • Develop strategic action plan to address DMC. Monitor and amend plan as needed.

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

Planning functions are performed under the general oversight of the New York State Juvenile Justice Advisory Group (JJAG), which was established under Executive Order No. 80. This Group is composed of representatives of state and local juvenile justice agencies, community organizations and citizen representatives.
Among the functions of the JJAG are:
the development and review of the State's Comprehensive Plan for Juvenile Justice;
the review of all grant applications for JJDP funds;
the consideration of juvenile justice matters referred to the Group by the Commissioner of DCJS, the Legislature, or the Governor's Office; and,
consideration of other juvenile justice issues not expressly referred to above.
In addition, the JJAG serves as a strong coordinating body among agencies dealing with at-risk and court-related youth, and is an important link in the process of developing juvenile justice policy for OJJDP programs.

SAG chair

Current chair has not been successfully reached

Organizational structure

There is no organization information available at this time.


Youth Advisory (YAC), DMC


  • Richard Aborn President, Citizens Crime Commission of New York City
  • Thomas Beilein Chairman, NYS Commission on Corrections
  • Jenny Besch Director, Westchester and Rockland Mediation Centers
  • Elmer Blanco Youth Member
  • Laurence Busching Executive Deputy Commissioner, NYC Administration for Children's Services
  • Gladys Carrión Commissioner, NYS Office of Children and Family Services
  • John (Jack) Carter, Chairman
  • Hernan Carvente Youth Member
  • Joseph J. Cocozza, Ph.D. Director, National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice,
  • Policy Research Associates, Inc.
  • Shane Correia Youth Member
  • Edward Fergus, Ph.D. Deputy Director, Metropolitan Center for Urban Education
  • Hon. Martha Walsh Hood Supervising Judge of Family Courts, 5th Judicial District
  • Hon. Judy Harris Kluger New York State Courts Chief of Policy and Planning
  • Nancy Hollander, Psy.D.
  • Robert M. Maccarone Director, DCJS Office of Probation and Correctional Alternatives
  • Janice Nittoli President, The Century Foundation
  • Haley Reimbold Youth Member
  • Karen Richmond Executive Director, Children's Home of Jefferson County
  • Billy Rodriguez Youth Member
  • Euphemia Strauchn-Adams Executive Director, Families on the Move NYC