United States of Disparities

United States

One-day count

Data in this section show how many youth are detained, committed, or otherwise sleeping somewhere other than their homes per orders of the court on "any given day" in select years. Data is available for the nation and on a state-by-state basis, and are based upon one-day counts of youth in residential placement facilities conducted in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Learn more »

Show table and download this data

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Year White Black Latino Native American Asian Other All youth of color All youth

Annual decision points

This section includes data at nine key juvenile justice annual decision points. Data are available at the county and state-level, but only for counties that report. This section allows you to view the data from many different angles and all of the data is broken down by race and ethnicity. Learn more »


Data not available for every year. (Why?)

Available years are those for which states have submitted data to OJJDP. States do not submit data on an annual basis.

Case flow diagram

Click on a decision-making point to see the data for that point. Click additional decision-making points to the graph to compare.

  1. Youth population

  • 1Comparison of arrest to population is rate per 1,000 youth. All other annual decision points are rate per 100 youth at the prior decision-making point.
  • 2Due to differences in how states define arrests and referrals to court, some states may have more referrals to court than arrests.
Show table and download this data

Click column headers to sort Download

Decision White Black Latino American Indian or Alaskan Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Asian Other All youth of color All youth

1 of 1 counties (Why?)

Originally, states were only required to examine three counties: those with the greatest proportions of minority youth within their juvenile population, as well as those that contained the greatest numbers of minority youth. Only recently has OJJDP required that states track DMC data for all potential DMC reduction sites on a regular basis (at least every 3 years). If a county is not a DMC reduction site, data may not be available.

Detention statute

Juvenile courts may hold delinquents in a secure detention facility if the court believes it is in the best interest of the community or the child. After arrest a youth is often brought to the local juvenile detention facility by law enforcement. Juvenile probation officers or detention workers review the case and decide if the juvenile should be held pending a hearing by a judge.

Jurisdiction ages

  • 0–17
  • Extended Age of Delinquency Jurisdiction: 20

Age of Detention:


Standard for detention

D.C. Code Ann. § 16-2310.

(a) A child shall not be placed in detention prior to a fact-finding hearing or a dispositional hearing unless he is alleged to be delinquent or in need of supervision and unless it appears from available information that detention is required - (1) to protect the person or property of others or of the child, or (2) to secure the child's presence at the next court hearing.

(a-1) (1) There shall be a rebuttable presumption that detention is required to protect the person or property of others if the judicial officer finds by a substantial probability that the child: (A) Committed a dangerous crime or a crime of violence while armed with or having readily available a pistol, firearm, or imitation firearm; or (B) Committed CPWL, carrying a pistol without a license.

Detention hearing timeline

D.C. Code Ann. § 16-2312.

No later than the next day after taken into custody, excluding Sundays.

If the booking is completed before 1:00 in the afternoon, MPD takes the youth to the CSS Juvenile Intake office at the Superior Court Family Court, 500 Indiana Avenue, NW, for the interviews and risk assessment. The youth will have his or her first court hearing the same day. If the booking is completed after 1:00 in the afternoon, the youth will be taken to the CSS Juvenile Intake office at YSC for the interviews and risk assessment, and will not have his or her initial (first) court hearing until the next day. When that happens, Court Social Services uses the youth’s risk assessment score to decide whether to release the youth to his or her parent or caretaker with a summons to appear in court the next day, or have the youth held in overnight shelter at the YSC or another location and taken to court the next day that initial hearings are held. Initial hearings are not held on Sundays


Please email Anna Wong with any updates to contact information for your DMC coordinator, JJS coordinator, or DMC subcommittee chair.

DMC Coordinator

Diamond Vann, MA
Criminal Justice Coordinating Council
One Judiciary Square
441 4th Street, NW Suite 715N
Washington, DC 20001
Phone: 202-442-4996
Fax: 202-727-5203

There is no DMC website

JJS Specialist

Diamond Vann, MA--see contact information above

DMC subcommittee chair

There is currently no DMC subcommittee chair

Reform efforts

States that wish to post their most recent three-year plans or share other relevant publications about their reform work should contact Anna Wong. We would be happy to link to relevant documents and information.

DMC reform efforts

  • 2012 Diversity and Cultural Competency Assessment and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis

State plan

There is no link available to the current State Plan

State Advisory Group (SAG)

The Juvenile Justice Advisory Group (JJAG) advises the state juvenile agency, provides active consultation to the government and private agencies, and ensures the provision of comprehensive delinquency prevention programs that meet the needs of youth through the collaboration of many local systems with which a youth may interface. Consistent with these provisions, the JJAG:

  • Spearheads the development of the District's three-year statewide plan
  • Advises the Mayor and Legislature on compliance with core requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act
  • Obtains input from youth currently under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system
  • Reviews and comments on a all grant proposals funded by federal formula grants
  • Assists in monitoring all juvenile detention and correction facilities and community-based programs to ensure compliance with the JJDP Act

SAG chair

Carmen E. Daugherty, Esq.
Policy Director
Campaign for Youth Justice
1220 L Street, NW, Suite 605
Washington, DC, 20005
Phone: 202-558-3580

Organizational structure

The group consists of a minimum of 15 to 33 members that include the directors of juvenile justice agencies, prosecutors, public defenders, mental health professionals, community leaders, and most importantly, youth.


  • Ethics
  • Policy and Legislative
  • Grants
  • Youth
  • Compliance
  • Executive


  • Amoretta Morris, DCPS
  • Arnolda Beaujuin, Attorney
  • Bridgette Royster, JGA
  • Carmen Daughtery, Advocates for Justice and Education, Inc.
  • Carolyn Dallas, Youth Court of DC
  • Chelsey Rodgers, Attorney
  • Daniel Okonkwo, DC Lawyers for Youth
  • Dave Rosenthal, OAG
  • Diamond Herring, Youth
  • Gitana Stewart-Ponder, Office of Deputy Mayor of Public Safety and Justice
  • Hilary Cairns, Department of Human Services
  • Ileana Benitez, Youth
  • Ivan Cloyd, Alliance of Concerned Men
  • James Berry, Public Defender Service
  • James Ballard III, Department of Mental Health
  • Jamie Rodriquez, Public Defender Service
  • Joel Braithwaite, Criminal Justice Coordinating Council
  • Leroy Thorpe, Community Member
  • Lisette Burton, Community Member
  • Melissa Garcia, Youth
  • Neil Stanley, Department of Youth Rehabilitation Services
  • Patrice Sulton, Attorney
  • Ram Uppuluri, Community Member
  • Terri Odom, DC Superior Court/Court Social Services Division
  • Tonya Pickett, Columbia Heights Shaw Collaborative
  • Willie Dandridge, Metropolitan Police Department
  • Zoe Bush, DC Superior Court
  • Fanny Barksdale, DC Superior Court/Court Social Services Division